UZEI terminologia eta Lexikografia Zentroa

Nik UZEI zentroaren gainean arituko naiz egin beharrako lanean. Bertan egiten diren hiztegi desberdinak aztertuz eta taldeak orokorrean dituen xedeetaz. Era berean, ildo beretik jarraituz, EUSKALTERM terminologia-bankua ere izango dut aztergai, bere historia, helburuak eta lana aztergai izanez.

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Elhuyar hizkuntza zerbitzuak

Elhuyarren hizkuntza zerbitzuaren sailaren helburu nagusia “euskara garatzeko hizkuntza-baliabide, -tresna eta -zerbitzuak sortzea eta eskaintzea da”. Horretarako, Elhuyarren hizkuntza zerbitzuak “bezeroaren hizkuntza–beharrak osotasunean hartu eta kalitateko hizkuntza-zerbitzu integrala ematea du helburu”.

Elhuyar sortu zenetik beti jardun izan du euskarak gizartean izan dituen premia berrietarako lanabesak lantzen. Beraz, daukan esperientzia eta jakintza kontutan hartuta euren apustua ” kalitatea da, xede argi baten mesedetan betiere: euskara komunikazio-hizkuntza izatea gizartean”

Elhuyarrekoek lan talde zabala daukate, izan ere alor ezberdinetako langileek osatzen dute hizkuntza zerbitzuaren lan taldea: itzultzaileek, ikertzaileek, terminologoek, lexikografoek eta proiektu-kudeatzaileak.

Lan talde honez gain, hizkuntza zerbitzuaren kalitatea hobetzeko hainbat kolaboratzaile, aholkulari eta adituk laguntzen die. Lan talde ezberdinen zuzendariak hurrengoak dira:

* Hizkuntza Zerbitzuetako arduraduna: Josu Aztiria Urtaran
* Itzulpen-zerbitzuko arduraduna: Lierni Otamendi Arrieta
* Hiztegigintza eta I+G+B unitateko arduraduna: Antton Gurrutxaga Hernaiz

Elhuyarreko Hizkuntza zerbitzuaren lan taldeek bere helburuekin aurrera egiteko teknologia eta baliabide ezberdinak erabiltzen dituzte, hala nola: baliabide lexiko-terminologikoak, itzulpengintzarako laguntza tresnak, I+G+Bko emaitzak eta garatutako softwarea.

Informazio gehiago nahiago nahi izanez gero, jo ezazue helbide honetara:

http://www.elhuyar.org/EU

Hiztegi honek hainbat aukera eskeintzen ditu, hala nola hizkuntza ezberdinetan hitz bat nola esaten den, beronen lokuzioak eta lexiak, etab. Hona hemen bedar hitzarekin adibide bat:

1 belar

euskara-gaztelania

Adierak

1 iz.

hierba

* Belarra ebaki: cortar la hierba.
* Belarretan etzanda: tumbado en la hierba.
* Belarretara joan da: ha ido a la hierba (a trabajar el heno).

2 iz. (herr.)

tabaco

* Erre nahi duenak eros dezala belarra: el que quiera fumar que compre tabaco.

Azpisarrerak

Lexiak

* belar bedeinkatu
* belar gaizto/txar
* belar gazi
* belar idor/ihar/lehor/ondu/siku/zimel
* belar latz
* belar on
* belar urdin
* belar usaintsu; usain-belar
* belar-denda
* belar-epaile
* belar-galtzaile
* belar-izpi
* belar-meta
* belar-ondo
* belar-pozoi
* belar-soro
* belar-xut

Lokuzioak

* belarretan
* belarretara

euskara-frantsesa

Adierak

1 iz.

herbe, foin

2 iz.

front, audace

Azpisarrerak

Lexiak

* belar gaizto/txar
* belar ihar/ondu
* belar-denda

euskara-ingelesa

Adierak

iz.

grass

* Gurdi bete belar: a cart full of grass.
* Ez zapaldu belarra: keep off the grass.
* Belar gainean: on the grass.

Azpisarrerak

Lexiak

* belar gaizto/txar
* belar ihar/ondu
* belar-denda

Bibliografia:

* Elhuyar hizkuntza zerbitzuak: http://www.elhuyar.org/hizkuntza-zerbitzuak/EU

* http://www.basqueresearch.com/nor_gara.asp?hizk=G

Kontsulta ordua eta data: 2010eko martxoaren 10ean, 13:05ean.

La ventaja de los corpora en formato electrónico

La ventaja de los corpora en formato electrónico

La famosa globalización llega a todos los ámbitos de la vida. Cuando un profesional o una persona cualquiera se enfrenta a la realización de algún tipo de trabajo suele poder disponer de una ingente cantidad de información y de documentación. En el caso de trabajos relacionados de alguna manera con la lingüística es una realidad habitual. El profesional se encuentra con cantidades considerables de documentos que aportan datos que sólo una codificación, ordenación y organización de éstos en la proporción adecuada pueden mantenerlo a flote en la inmensidad de la información que contienen habitualmente. Esto se consigue con los corpus, y, especialmente cuando éstos están en formato electrónico, utilizando herramientas informáticas. Estas herramientas agilizan el trabajo y consiguen que se pueda abarcar mayor cantidad de información, con lo que el resultado del trabajo puede ser mucho más preciso y más acorde con la realidad.

Estos corpus informatizados son muy útiles en diferentes áreas: lexicología, terminología, etc., y para la traducción automática o para la enseñanza de la lengua. Como estas dos áreas me interesan especialmente me quiero centrar en ellas. Un buen corpus nos va a facilitar nuestro trabajo y por ejemplo, en el área de la enseñanza de la lengua nos va a reportar algunas ventajas:

  • Nos facilita la preparación de materiales o ejercicios para el aula basados en un uso real de la lengua.

  • Nos permitirá el análisis del uso de palabras y construcciones más frecuentes que se van a encontrar en libros de texto y lectura recomendadas.

  • Nos permitirá la corrección de barbarismos.

  • Y también, la corrección de malos usos lingüísticos (errores más repetidos, construcciones no normativas, léxico mal usado, grafías incorrectas,…)

Complementando a la enseñanza de la lengua y directamente relacionada con la traducción automática, está el trabajo de creación y actualización de diccionarios. En este apartado el uso de un corpus es imprescindible. El que sea informatizado agilizará considerablemente el procesamiento de documentos. Todas la editoriales y Academias de la Lengua utilizan corpus monolingües o multilingües para sus trabajos u obras lexicográficas o diccionarios.

Bibliografía

TORRUELLA, J. – LLISTERRI, J. (1999) “Diseño de corpus textuales y orales”, in BLECUA, J.M. – CLAVERIA, G. – SÁNCHEZ, C. – TORRUELLA, J. (Eds.) Filología e informática. Nuevas tecnologías en los estudios filológicos. Barcelona: Seminario de Filología e Informática, Departamento de Filología Española, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona – Editorial Milenio. Pp. 45-47.

http://liceu.uab.es/~joaquim/publicaciones/Torruella_Llisterri_99.pdf

[Ponencia originalmente leída en el seminario “La ingeniería lingüística en la sociedad de la información “, Fundación Duques de Soria, 17-21 de julio de 2000. Posteriormente publicada en M.A. Martí y J. Llistterri, 2002. Tratamiento del lenguaje natural. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona: 61-90] Tratamiento de corpora bilingües Joseba Abaitua. http://www.deli.deusto.es Universidad de Deusto

Pedro Maestre Yenes. 1999. La utilización de las diferentes lenguas en Internet. Centro Virtual Cervantes. http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario_99/pmaestre/

Sara Laviosa. 1997. How comparable can ‘comparable corpora’ be? Target, 9-2: 289-319.

Glosario:

lexicología.

(Del gr. λεξικόν, léxico, y -logía).

1. f. Estudio de las unidades léxicas de una lengua y de las relaciones sistemáticas que se establecen entre ellas.

terminología.

1. f. Conjunto de términos o vocablos propios de determinada profesión, ciencia o materia.

barbarismo.

(Del lat. barbarismus).

1. m. Incorrección que consiste en pronunciar o escribir mal las palabras, o en emplear vocablos impropios.

5. m. Ling. Extranjerismo no incorporado totalmente al idioma.

The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching

The relationship between language and culture is deeply rooted. Language is used to maintain and convey culture and cultural ties. Different ideas stem from differing language use within one’s culture and the whole intertwining of these relationships start at one’s birth.

The relationship between language and culture is deeply rooted. Language is used to maintain and convey culture and cultural ties. Different ideas stem from differing language use within one’s culture and the whole intertwining of these relationships start at one’s birth.

When an infant is born, it is not unlike any other infant born, in fact, quite similar. It is not until the child is exposed to their surroundings that they become individuals in and of their cultural group. This idea, which describes all people as similar at birth, has been around for thousands of years and was discussed by Confucius as recorded in the book by his followers, Analects (Xu, 1997). From birth, the child’s life, opinions, and language are shaped by what it comes in contact with. Brooks (1968) argues that physically and mentally everyone is the same, while the interactions between persons or groups vary widely from place to place. Patterns which emerge from these group behaviours and interactions will be approved of, or disapproved of. Behaviours which are acceptable will vary from location to location (Brooks, 1968) thus forming the basis of different cultures. It is from these differences that one’s view of the world is formed. Hantrais (1989) puts forth the idea that culture is the beliefs and practices governing the life of a society for which a particular language is the vehicle of expression. Therefore, everyone’s views are dependent on the culture which has influenced them, as well as being described using the language which has been shaped by that culture. The understanding of a culture and its people can be enhanced by the knowledge of their language. This brings us to an interesting point brought up by Emmitt and Pollock (1997), who argue that even though people are brought up under similar behavioural backgrounds or cultural situations but however speak different languages, their world view may be very different. As Sapir-Whorf argues, different thoughts are brought about by the use of different forms of language. One is limited by the language used to express one’s ideas. Different languages will create different limitations, therefore a people who share a culture but speak different languages, will have different world views. Still, language is rooted in culture and culture is reflected and passed on by language from one generation to the next (Emmitt & Pollock 1997).
From this, one can see that learning a new language involves the learning of a new culture (Allwright & Bailey 1991). Consequently, teachers of a language are also teachers of culture (Byram 1989).

The implications of language being completely entwined in culture, in regards for language teaching and language policy are far reaching. Language teachers must instruct their students on the cultural background of language usage, choose culturally appropriate teaching styles, and explore culturally based linguistic differences to promote understanding instead of misconceptions or prejudices. Language policy must be used to create awareness and understandings of cultural differences, and written to incorporate the cultural values of those being taught.

Implications for language teaching
Teachers must instruct their students on the cultural background of language usage. If one teaches language without teaching about the culture in which it operates, the students are learning empty or meaningless symbols or they may attach the incorrect meaning to what is being taught. The students, when using the learnt language, may use the language inappropriately or within the wrong cultural context, thus defeating the purpose of learning a language.

Conflict in teaching styles also stem from the relationship between language and culture. During the past decade, I have taught English in Taiwan and have observed a major difficulty in English instruction brought about by teachers and suffered by students. Western English teachers who teach in Taiwan bring along with them any or all of their teaching and learning experiences. To gain employment in Taiwan as an English teacher (legally), one must have received a Bachelor’s degree (Information for foreigners), thus, all instructors of English in Taiwan have, to some degree, an experience of learning in a higher educational setting. From this, they bring with them what they imagine to be appropriate teaching methodology. What is not generally understood, even seldom noticed is that while Taiwanese classes are conducted in a Chinese way, that is in a teacher centered learning environment, the native English teacher’s instruction is focused on student centered learning (Pennycook 1994). Pennycook (1994) continues by pointing out that student centered learning is unsuitable for Chinese students. The students may not know how to react to this different style of learning. A case in point, when at the beginning of my teaching career in Taiwan, I found it very easy to teach English, but very difficult to get the students to interact with me while I was teaching. Teaching was very easy because the students were well behaved and very attentive. The difficulties surfaced when trying to get the students to interact with me, their teacher. At the time, I did not realize that in Taiwan, it was culturally unacceptable for students to interact with their teacher. The Taiwanese students were trained to listen to what the teacher said, memorize it, and later regurgitate it during an exam. I was forced to change my method of teaching so that I was recognised as a “friend” rather than a teacher. The classroom setting had to be changed to a much less formal setting to coax out student interaction. As Murray (1982) pointed out, Chinese students will refuse to accept this “informal discussion” style of teaching. However, once the students were comfortable in their surroundings and didn’t associate it to a typical “Chinese” style class, they became uninhibited and freely conversed in English. The language classes taught using this style proved to be most beneficial to the students with an overall increase in the grade point average.

Because language is so closely entwined with culture, language teachers entering a different culture must respect their cultural values. As Englebert (2004) describes: “…to teach a foreign language is also to teach a foreign culture, and it is important to be sensitive to the fact that our students, our colleges, our administrators, and, if we live abroad, our neighbours, do not share all of our cultural paradigms.”

I have found teaching in Taiwan, the Chinese culture is not the one of individualism, as is mine, but focused on the family and its ties. The backwash from teaching using western culturally acceptable methods must be examined before proceeding as they may be inappropriate teaching methods, intentional or not, may cause the student embarrassment, or worse, to the entire students’ family. As Spence (1985) argues, success and failure in a Chinese cultural framework influences not just oneself but the whole family or group. Therefore, teachers must remember to respect the culture in which they are located.

Language teachers must realize that their understanding of something is prone to interpretation. The meaning is bound in cultural context. One must not only explain the meaning of the language used, but the cultural context in which it is placed as well. Often meanings are lost because of cultural boundaries which do not allow such ideas to persist. As Porter (1987) argues, misunderstandings between language educators often evolve because of such differing cultural roots, ideologies, and cultural boundaries which limit expression.

Language teachers must remember that people from different cultures learn things in different ways. For example, in China memorization is the most pronounced way to study a language which is very unlike western ideologies where the onus is placed on free speech as a tool for utilizing and remembering vocabulary and grammar sequences (Hui 2005). Prodromou (1988) argues that the way we teach reflects our attitudes to society in general and the individual`s place in society.
When a teacher introduces language teaching materials, such as books or handouts, they must understand that these will be viewed differently by students depending on their cultural views (Maley 1986). For instance, westerners see books as only pages which contain facts that are open to interpretation. This view is very dissimilar to Chinese students who think that books are the personification of all wisdom, knowledge and truth (Maley 1986).

One should not only compare, but contrast the cultural differences in language usage. Visualizing and understanding the differences between the two will enable the student to correctly judge the appropriate uses and causation of language idiosyncrasies. For instance, I have found, during my teaching in Taiwan, that it is necessary to contrast the different language usages, especially grammatical and idiom use in their cultural contexts for the students to fully understand why certain things in English are said. Most Taiwanese students learning English are first taught to say “Hello. How are you?” and “I am fine. Thank you, and you?” This is believed to be what one must say on the first and every occasion of meeting a westerner. If I asked a student “What’s new?” or “How is everything?” they would still answer “I am fine, thank you and you?” Students often asked me why westerners greet each other using different forms of speech which, when translated to Mandarin, didn’t make sense. This question was very difficult to answer, until I used an example based in Chinese culture to explain it to them. One example of this usage: In Chinese, one popular way to greet a person is to say (…phonetically using pinyin) “chr bao^ le ma?” This, loosely translated to English, would have an outcome similar to “Have you eaten?” or “Are you full?” This greeting was developed in ancient Chinese culture as there was a long history of famine. It was culturally (and possibly morally) significant to ask someone if they had eaten upon meeting. This showed care and consideration for those around you. Even now, people are more affluent but this piece of language remains constant and people still ask on meeting someone, if they have eaten. If someone in a western society was greeted with this, they would think you are crazy or that it is none of your business. The usage of cultural explanations for teaching languages has proved invaluable for my students’ understanding of the target language. It has enabled them to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate circumstances of which to use English phrases and idioms that they have learnt. Valdes (1986) argues that not only similarities and contrasts in the native and target languages have been useful as teaching tools, but when the teacher understands cultural similarities and contrasts, and applies that knowledge to teaching practices, they too become advantageous learning tools.

Simultaneous Interpretation How Does It Work?

For events and meetings that draw different cultures together, like the 2008 Olympics in Beijing or an international company meeting involving members speaking different languages, Simultaneous Interpretation (SI) is the key to understanding the ideas and information that is being shared.

For events and meetings that draw different cultures together, like the 2008 Olympics in Beijing or an international company meeting involving members speaking different languages, Simultaneous Interpretation (SI) is the key to understanding the ideas and information that is being shared.

But how does it work? What are the components involved in creating a system that will allow many different languages to be voiced and understood?

It all starts with the Interpreter. Hiring the actual human interpreter is the most important aspect because all of the fancy equipment is worthless if the human interpreter can”t keep up with the conversation in the meeting. That being said, an interpreter”s job is made much easier through the use of the right equipment.

For whatever the event, the Simultaneous Interpretation system will need microphones for the participants to speak into (more than likely these will already be in the overall audio system for the conference), that audio will be known as the “Floor Channel.” Interpreters listen to that “Floor Channel” through a piece of equipment known as an Interpreter Unit (or Interpreter Desk) which is a device with multiple language inputs and multiple language outputs. Audio from the “Floor Channel” comes to the Interpreter Unit and the Interpreter listens via headphones or a built-in speaker. The Interpreter can then interpret the “Floor Channel” into a different language by using a headset or detachable microphone which will then send the language channel out to a language distribution system.

Distributing the language channels can be done in different methods. If the event is using a Conference System then the Interpreter Unit can send the language channel right back to the participant”s station on the same cable it received the “Floor Channel.” The participant (or Delegate) will simply use a pair of headphones connected to their station and choose the appropriate language channel to listen to.

If there are non-participating members in the event, that need to hear the interpreted languages, a wireless distribution system can be implemented. This system will have a device with multiple inputs to handle the various languages and then distribute them throughout the meeting room via Infrared or RF (Radio Frequencies). The audience members will have a small receiver with a headphone jack and a channel selector, and they too will be able to listen to the Simultaneous Interpretation system.

The important thing to consider when putting together a Simultaneous Interpretation system, or any system, is that the fewer components there are the less likely anything will go wrong (or at least when something does go wrong there are less components to check). This is one of the biggest advantages of using a conference system that includes Simultaneous Interpretation. The components are from the same manufacturer, the cabling is the same, the connectors are the same, and because it is a conference system, all of the features you will need for the rest of the event are already included in the components needed for the SI system.

Just remember to hire an experienced interpreter.

Review: Oxford Dictionary

Since I installed Oxford Dictionary on my Nokia E50 I find myself using it almost every day. I read a lot of English books and magazines and every time I come across an English word I don’t understand I open Oxford English Dictionary and find out its meaning. It’s very comfortable to use a dictionary on your mobile phone as it’s the fastest and the most convinient  way of finding a word when you are out and, for example, facing the situation when you need to say something  immediately.  That way you learn many new words and I recommend this application especially to people whose native language is other than English.

Oxford Dictionary is not  cheap. It will cost you $29.99 to purchase a full license. However, you can first use the trial version and see if it’s the right thing for you.  The Oxford Dictionary website doesn’t say how long you can use the trial version but I guess it’s something around 2 – 4 weeks. Anyway, it’s long enough for you to decide if you need the software or not.

Features

Oxford Dictionary (or Concise Oxford English Dictionary) is the most popular dictionary of its kind around the world and is noted for its clear, concise definitions as well as its comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the vocabulary of the English-speaking world. It contains over  240 000 words, phrases, and definitions, including 900 new words, This is a huge database but despite its size, the dictionary works like a snap. Speed is a crucial factor and Oxford Dictionary offers quick dynamic search of words while you type and dynamic changing of font sizes.

The starting screen of the dictionary is basically a list of words with a search bar at the bottom. The matching words are highlighted as you type. Once you find the correct word you click on it and the page with definitions opens right away. The great thing is that you can further navigate to any word on the page; put focus on it with a cursor and press the center push button. Check the screenshots below to get a better image of the functionality:

Oxford Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary

Concise Oxford English Dictionary has some extra features that make it even more powerful tool. If you launch the options you’ll see:

  • Search History to see the list of last 15 translations
  • Direction – if you have more modules in the dictionary you can select in which direction they should be used (e.g. English – Russian or Russian – English); at the moment Russian is the only extra language that Oxford Dictionary offers
  • Support for MMC, memory stick, and SD memory cards
  • Irregular verbs for all English Dictionaries
  • Pronunciation feature for any word that might cause difficulty

Settings

In the settings you can setup the sound volume, font size, full screen, translation from clipboard and auto-update interval. Especially font size option can be really useful for people who have problems recognizing small letters.

That’s pretty much it. I hope this review will encourage you to download and try this great application.

Sources: