My Slideshare: Cambridge Dictionaries Online

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Machine Translator

FIRST TEXT

Original Text in English

– The Roman Coliseum –

The real name is Flavius amphitheatre but why does the whole world call it the Coliseum ?

Perhaps he got the name from the enormous statue of the Emperor Nero , “the colossus” 35 metres high, which stood right next to the amphitheatre and has now been completely destroyed.

Like modern sports stadiums, the gave Coliseum spectators efficient protection from the sun thanks to its ingenious roof covering, the “Velarium”. The Velarium was an enormous linen tarpaulin hung by a system of ropes, winches and wooden poles that girded the top of the outer wall. It took one hundred sailors from the Imperial fleet to move it. They moved in perfect synchrony to the beating of a drum.

After the VI century, with the Empire’s decline, the Coliseum fell into disuse and its walls housed confraternities, hospitals, hermits and even a cemetery. From the Middle Ages onwards, the Coliseum has been one of Rome’s and the world’s greatest marvels, attracting hoards of visitors.

Google Translator version

– El Coliseo romano –

El verdadero nombre es Flavius amphitheatre, pero ¿por qué todo el mundo lo llaman el Coliseo?

Tal vez recibió el nombre de la enorme estatua del emperador Nerón “, el” coloso de 35 metros de alto, que estaba justo al lado del anfiteatro y ahora ha sido completamente destruido.

Al igual que los estadios de los deportes modernos, el Coliseo dio protección eficaz espectadores del sol gracias a su ingenioso techo que cubre, el “velario”. El velario fue una enorme lona de lino pendía de un sistema de cuerdas, cabrestantes y postes de madera que rodeaban la parte superior de la pared exterior. Tomó cien marineros de la flota imperial para moverlo. Se movían en perfecta sincronía con el latido de un tambor.

A partir del siglo VI, con la caída del Imperio, el Coliseo cayó en desuso y sus paredes ubicado cofradías, hospitales, ermitas e incluso un cementerio. A partir de la Edad Media, el Coliseo es una de Roma y maravillas naturales más impresionantes del mundo, atrayendo hordas de visitantes.

My own version

– El Coliseo Romano –

Su verdadero nombre es Anfiteatro Flavio, pero ¿Por qué todo el mundo lo llama el Coliseo?

Tal vez recibió el nombre de la enorme estatua del emperador  Nerón, “El Coloso” de 35 metros de altura, que estaba justo al lado del anfiteatro y que está ahora completamente destruido.

Al igual que los estadios de deporte modernos, el Coliseo proporcionó protección eficaz del sol a los espectadores gracias a su ingenioso techo cubierto, el Velario”. El Velario era una enorme lona de lino que colgaba de un sistema de cuerdas, cabestrantes y postes de madera que rodeaban la parte superior de la pared exterior. Se necesitaron cien marineros de la flota para moverlo y se movían en perfecta sincronía con ayuda del golpe de un tambor.

A partir del siglo VI, con el ocaso del Imperio, el Coliseo cayó en desuso, sus paredes con cofradías ubicadas, hospitales, ermitas e incluso un cementerio. A partir de la Edad Media, el Coliseo es una de las maravillas más grandes de Roma y del mundo, atrayendo así un gran número de visitantes.

SECOND TEXT

Original Text in English

There’s Very Little to Complain About in Yankees’ Start

In the first year of the new Yankee Stadium, every team in the majors had a flag atop the upper deck: a green one for  the Oakland    Athletics, a blue one for the Los Angeles Dodgers and so on, a subtle sign of welcome for the visitors.

Not this season. Now the flags are white, each one emblazoned with  a different championship year. The message is unmistakable. This is the home of champions again, and the crown fits the Yankees quite well.

The Yankees have won 9 of 12 games this season, spending a leisurely Sunday sweeping away the Texas Rangers, 5-2, behind Andy Pettitte. It is safe to say things have not been this serene around the franchise in decades.

“My memory can’t go that far,” said Mariano Rivera, who retired the side in the ninth. “But we just love to play the game that we know how to play. We have a tremendous bunch of guys here that want to play the game right — young players, veteran players, players that come from other teams. We feel comfortable, feel good, and that’s the reason why we have been doing good so far.”

Google Translator version

Hay muy pocas quejas en Inicio Yankees

En el primer año del nuevo Yankee Stadium, todos los equipos en las Grandes Ligas había una bandera encima de la cubierta superior: uno verde para los Atléticos de Oakland, una azul de los Dodgers de Los Ángeles y así sucesivamente, un signo sutil de bienvenida para los visitantes.

No esta temporada. Ahora las banderas son de color blanco, cada uno adornado con un año de campeonato diferente. El mensaje es inequívoco. Este es el hogar de los campeones de nuevo, y la corona se ajusta a los Yankees bastante bien.

Los Yanquis han ganado 9 de 12 partidos esta temporada, de pasar un tranquilo Domingo barriendo a los Rangers de Texas, 5-2, detrás de Andy Pettitte. Es seguro decir que las cosas no han sido tan sereno en torno a la franquicia en las últimas décadas.

“Mi memoria no puede ir tan lejos”, dijo Mariano Rivera, quien se retiró la parte en la novena entrada. “Pero nos encanta jugar el juego que sabemos cómo jugar. Tenemos un montón enorme de chicos aquí que quieren jugar el juego de la derecha – los jugadores jóvenes, jugadores veteranos, (_) los jugadores que vienen de otros equipos. Nos sentimos cómodos, se sienten bien, y esa es la razón por la que hemos estado haciendo bien hasta ahora. “

My own version

Hay muy pocas quejas sobre el comienzo de los Yankees

En el primer año del nuevo Estadio de los Yankees, todos los equipos de las grandes ligas tenían una bandera en lo alto de la cubierta superior: Una verde para los Oakland Athletics, una azul para Los Angeles Dodgers etc., y un sutil signo de bienvenida para los visitantes.

Esta temporada, no. Ahora las banderas son de color blanco, cada una con un año de campeonato diferente. El mensaje es inconfundible. Ésta es otra vez la casa de los campeones, y la corona se ajusta bastante bien a los Yankees.

Los Yankees han ganado esta temporada 12 de 9 partidos, pansando un tranquilo Domingo barriendo a los Texas Rangers 5-2, detrás de Andy Pettitte. Se puede decir que las cosas no han sido tan serenas en torno a la franquicia de las últimas décadas.

“Mi memoria no llega tan lejos” dijo Mariano Rivera, quién se retiró a un lado en la novena entrada. “Pero nos encanta jugar al juego que sabemos como se juega. Aquí tenemos un enorme grupo de chicos que quieren jugar bien – jugadores jóvenes, jugadores veteranos, y los jugadores que vienen de otros equipos. Nos sentimos cómodos, bien, y esa es la razón por la que lo hemos estado haciendo bien hasta ahora”.

THIRD TEXT

Original text in English

The Shark  & The Mermaids

Required: Large pool

Players: Small to medium groups

How to play:

One person is chosen to be the shark and the others are mermaids. The Shark starts on the side of the pool close to the middle (the ladder) while the mermaids start at one end of the pool. When the shark says go, the mermaids must try to make it across the pool and back. Meanwhile the shark jumps in and starts to try and tag the mermaids. If a mermaid is tagged they are frozen and it is up to another mermaid to unfreeze them. The mermaids win if they each make it across the pool and back and are all touching the end of the pool. The Shark wins if everyone is tagged and frozen.

Rules:

* If you are frozen you cannot unfreeze anyone even if they are only an inch away.

* The shark may go under water.

* All the mermaids must have touched the opposite end of the pool before they can make their way back.

* Mermaids can communicate.

Google Translator version

El tiburón y Sirenas La

Requerido: Amplia piscina
Jugadores: pequeñas y medianas grupos

¿Cómo se juega:
Una persona es elegida para formar el tiburón y los otros son sirenas. El tiburón se inicia en el lado de la piscina cerca de la mitad (la escalera), mientras las sirenas comienzan a partir de un extremo de la piscina. Cuando el tiburón que me vaya, las sirenas que tratar de hacerlo a través de la piscina y la espalda. Mientras tanto, el tiburón salta y comienza a tratar de etiqueta de las sirenas. Si se marca una sirena que se congelan y corresponde a otra sirena para descongelar. Las sirenas ganar si cada uno de ellos que logran cruzar la piscina y la espalda y están tocando el extremo de la piscina. El tiburón gana si todos están etiquetados y congelados.

Reglas:

* Si se congelan no se puede descongelar cualquier persona incluso si son sólo una pulgada de distancia.
* El tiburón puede ir bajo el agua.
* Todas las sirenas que han tocado el extremo opuesto de la piscina antes de que puedan hacer su camino de regreso.
* (_) Sirenas se puede comunicar.

My own version

El tiburón y las sirenas

Se requiere: Piscina amplia

Jugadores:  Desde grupos pequeños a medianos

Cómo jugar:

Una persona es elegida para ser el tiburón y los demás las sirenas. El tiburón empieza en un lado de la piscina cerca de la mitad (la escalera), mientras que las sirenas empiezan desde un extremo de la piscina. Cuando el tiburón dice “¡ya!” las sirenas tienen que tratar de ir y volver y mientras tanto, el tiburón salta para poder cogerlas. Si una sirena es tocada, ésta misma se congela y le corresponde a otra sirena descongelarla. Las sirenas ganan si cada una de ellas hacen la ida y la vuelta y tocan el extremo de la piscina. El tiburón gana si todas las sirenas están cogidas y congeladas.

Reglas:

* Si te congelan no puedes descongelar a nadie aunque sea a una distancia corta.

* El tiburón puede ir bajo el agua.

* Todas las sirenas deben tocar el extremo del lado opuesto de la piscina antes de poder hacer el camino de regreso.

* Las sirenas pueden cominucarse entre sí.

MAIN MACHINE TRANSLATION ERRORS:

Using the machine translator, it can be appreciated that it makes several mistakes related to the lexicon and grammar.

1. Word Order: This has been one of the main errors MT has had when translating English into Spanish.

* protección eficaz espectadores del sol Here the sentence doesn’t make sense, MT translator does not know where to place del sol which in Spanish is before the subject. Apart from that, in order to give sense to the sentence we must add a preposition and also an article a los espectadores.

* sus paredes ubicado cofradías In this sentence MT has placed the adjective before the noun but in Spanish the adjective goes after the noun. Apart from that in order to give much sense to the sentence we should add a preposition sus paredes con cofradías ubicadas.

* No esta temporada In this example the MT is not totally wrong but Ésta temporada no fits better to the text.

2. Verb Tense: Many times, MTs have problems when dealing with a verb tense.

* pasar In the second text the MT has translated the verb spending as pasar and the correct form for the sentence  is the present continuous,  pasando.

* ganar In this sentence the MT has been confused with the verb win, it is wrong because we need the present simple ganan instead of the verb ganar.

* han tocado This is not really a bad translation but the text seems to refer to haber tocado so the MT’s example is wrong.

* puedan Here the infinitive poder fits better than the impreative.

3. Vocabulary: In most cases, the MT does not take into account that words can have more than one meaning.

* alto In this case the MT has confused high to an adjective and the text makes reference to a noun altura.

* latido The MT cannot choose the correct meaning taking into account the context. That is the work of the translator, to decide between the many meanings the one that fits best. So I have changed latido for golpe.

* hordas In this case, the meaning of this word does not make sense with the context as in Spanish it means a group which works with violence and without discipline. So I have changed hordas for un gran número.

* la parte Here we have a literal translation of the word side but it doesn’t make sense, so that it has been translated to lado.

* formar The MT has made a bad translation with the verb to be. It has translated as formar instead of the most obvious option ser.

4. Number & Gender: The MT cannot translate words with the correct gender or number because in English both nouns and adjectives do not have gender nor number inflexion.

* llaman Here it should have been llama as it gives much sense.

* adornado In this case, it has difficulties maintaining the concordance of subject-verb in gender. MT has translated adornado when it should be adornada.

* ellos We have the same problem here with it should be translated in feminine.

5. Pronouns & Articles:

* El At the beginning of the first text the context asks for a pronoun Su instead of an article El because it refers to the monument’s name.

* el The correct form would be preposition + article al.

* (_) In this case the MT has omitted the article Las which is needed in order to make sense.

6. Prepositions: There have been some errors when translating prepositions into Spanish.

* de The machine has not found the best preposition for the sentence blue one for the Los Angeles Dodgers. He has translated as de instead of para.

* para In this case, we can omit the preposition as it’s not necessary.

Finally, it should be of great importance mentioning that in some cases, the MT has introduced the relative pronoun que in una sirena que se congelan which it can be omitted. Apart from that, there is a sentence which needs the conjuction y because refering to the context the writer is giving several examples of players los jugadores jóvenes, jugadores veteranos, (_) los jugadores que vienen de otros equipos. and the machine has not been aware of it.

Sources:

THESAURUS

According to wikipedia Thesaurus:  “Is a book that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which contains definitions and pronunciations”.

Thesaurus is based on “Term relationships” which are links between terms. These relationships can be divided into three types: hierarchical, equivalency or associative.

  • Hierarchical relationships are used to indicate terms which are narrower and broader in scope. A “Broader Term” is a more general term e.g. “Apparatus” is a generalization of “Computers”. Reciprocally, a “Narrower Term” is a more specific term e.g. “Digital Computer” is a specialization of “Computer”.
  • The equivalency relationship is used primarily to connect synonyms and near-synonyms.
  • Associative relationships are used to connect two related terms whose relationship is neither hierarchical nor equivalent. This relationship is described by the indicator “Related Term”. In a way, associative relationships should be applied with caution, since excessive use of RTs will reduce specificity in searches.

The Visual Thesaurus of the Cambridge Dictionary Online is an example of a Thesaurus. In the website, when you look up a word in a selected topic, you can see other entries in that topic on the right-hand side – a group of words that are related to the word you looked up. The words in the cloud are bigger or smaller depending on how frequently they are used. Here we have an example with the word alone.

With a slight click in that square, the website leads us to the Visual Thesaurus. Then, we type in a word (alone) and clicking once again we can find a big thesaurus in the middle of the page.

The yellow points indicate adjectives and the blue points adverbs. Then, we have red points which indicate nouns and the green ones which indicate verbs. The last two doesn’t appear in the example. Moreover, we are given the sound of the word searched, we can hear the pronunciation of words just with clicking the loudspeaker.

If you are interested in this ingenious tool here you have more information: The largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary , which contains more than 920,000 words and meanings.

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE VISUAL THESAURUS OF CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARIES ONLINE AND OTHER THESAURUS  FOUND ON THE INTERNET

In this section of my review,  I would like to compare both The Visual Thesaurus of CDO and Lexipedia. Lexipedia is another page with thesaurus that is very similar to Visual Thesaurus. However, they have little differences among them.

At first sight as many other thesaurus they looked equal, both show nouns, adjectives, verbs… What’s more, they also show the definition and the sound of each word we have looked up. Apart from that, they have the chance of search a word in other languages which is useful for people who are learning more than one language. However, apart from equalities, we can also find little differences.

VISUAL THESAURUS: Example of a research

First, you just need to type in the word you are interested in and, then, click were it says “look it up”.

After that, you do not need to do anything else, the word just shows a number of words related to what you have searched.

LEXIPEDIA: Example of a research

As well as in the other thesaurus you have to type in the word you are interested in and, then, click were it says “sumit”.

Instantly, as well as in the other example, a thesaurus appears with a number of words related to what you have searched.

DIFFERENCES:

  • At first sight, we can appreciate that Lexipedia looks more elaborated and easier than CDO’s Visual Thesaurus as it has very well organised elements. In the case of CDO’s Visual Thesaurus, the page which appears in front of us when we look up a word is rather boring and simple as it has just the meanings of words on the right and the thesaurus in the centre.
  • Another difference between these thesaurus is that Lexipedia gives us the meaning of words such as noun, adjective, verb etc  and Visual Thesaurus don’t.

  • The last but also an important difference is that in Lexipedia, just putting the mouse in any word of the thesaurus a window appears with the sound and definition. In the case of CDO’s Visual Thesaurus you have to click on the word to make the sound appear. What’s more, Lexipedia offers the definitions of words on the left of the page and also in the window I mentioned before.

Sources:

Cambridge Dictionaries Online


As an English Philology student, so often I find difficult to understand the meaning of some words. I came across this language resource when one of the English teachers asked me to do a folder to include all unknown words at the beginning of the course. From all the available resources on the net, Cambridge Dictionary Online is one of the most ingenious dictionaries I have ever used.This tool is not only helpful in order to find many words that are not understood when reading, but it is also appropriate for translation tasks as it offers very accurate definitions and examples. Even if CDO is thought for non native English speakers, it may also be interesting for native speakers as it offers a full range of features.

Background about the creator (Cambridge University Press ELT):

  • Cambridge University Press ELT was established in the mid 1970s, and within thirty years has become one of the world’s leading publishers of ELT material. We now account for over a quarter of Cambridge Publishing’s sales revenue and over a half of all publications sold.
  • The quality of Cambridge’s ELT list is achieved by extremely close collaboration between in-house editors, all of whom have teaching experience and qualifications, and the teaching profession. Extensive market research precedes the development of new materials which are then piloted in schools in many parts of the world. We produce not only books but CDs, videos, CD-Roms and, increasingly, Web-based materials. ELT publications are sold to almost every country in the world and promoted by representatives based in 67 countries.
  • Cambridge ELT first earned its reputation as a publisher of materials for adults, but, in response to ever larger number of young children learning English, the list’s range is expanding. The oldest Press in the world now provides for even the youngest learners.

What can the Cambridge International Corpus do for students?

* Cambridge learner’s dictionaries, grammar and vocabulary learning materials, and examination, business and general English course books have all benefited from the information in the corpus.

* The corpus is constantly being added to so it’s always got current contemporary language in it and we can prioritise grammar and vocabulary that is most frequent and most useful.

* There is a huge range of types of material in the Cambridge International Corpus we can always find real examples that sound natural and realistic. So, the examples used, although they may sometimes be edited or adapted, are a reflection of real usage in real contexts; they are not invented.

* By using spoken corpora we can learn very important things about social communication. As a result, the activities in corpus-informed materials can focus on the most important features of speaking and listening skills and produce more effective communication.

About Cambridge Dictionaries Online:

– Cambridge University Press has been publishing dictionaries for learners of English since 1995.

– Cambridge Dictionaries Online has been offering many dictionaries completely free of charge since 1999.

Features:

– On the website there is The Cambridge SMART Thesaurus which organizes words and phrases into topics: When you look up a word in a selected topic, you can see other entries in that topic on the right-hand side – a group of words that are related to the word you looked up. The words in the cloud are bigger or smaller depending on how frequently they are used.

– You can keep in touch with the web’s favourite learner dictionaries through Twitter. Follow CambridgeWords and you’ll get regular Word of the Day updates, as well as being informed whenever they update the site.

– You can also choose to search their Learner’s, American English, Idiom, and Phrasal Verbs dictionaries online. Each entry includes the part of speech, definition, a short sentence or phrase, and phonetics.

– The Cambridge Dictionary Online includes The top 40 that is a list which shows the 40 entries that were clicked on most frequently in August 2009.

– You’ll find updated data with hundreds of words and examples from the latest edition of Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Their dictionary entries include thousands of example sentences chosen specifically by dictionary editors to illustrate the meanings.

How does it works:

– If we wish to find a certain word or term, we just have to type the word we are looking for and press the “search” button, and we will come up with all the existing definitions of the word.

Besides, I would like to give some examples of what the online dictionary can offer to all users, focusing mainly on its monolingual usage:

1. Noun: Book

2. Verb: Put

3. Adjective: Rich

4. Preposition: On

As it can be appreciated, if the dictionary finds that there are other words or expressions that also contain the word that is being looked up, it provides the possibility of choosing between one or another in order to make the research as accurate as possible.

COMPARISON BETWEEN CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARIES ONLINE AND COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY ONLINE

In this section of my review, I would like to compare the kind of explanations or definitions that Cambridge Dictionaries Online offers as opposed to the Collins English Dictionary:

Cambridge Dictionaries Online: Coward

Collins English Dictionary: Coward

CAMBRIDGE:

On the one hand, as it can be apreciated, the Cambridge Dictionaries Online offers a variety of things that are very useful in a dictionary:

•Sentences which help us to understand better the meaning of the word we have looked up.

•A voice that pronounce in British and American English in order to teach the user to pronounce correctly.

•The phonetics of the word we have chosen.

•A visual thesaurus which is also very helpful to see words connected with the word we have searched.

COLLINS:

On the other hand, the Collins English Dintionary does not have those caracteristics as it doesn’t give sentences nor pronunciation. Collins just shows the definition of the word we have looked up. However, it provides other things which are very useful:
•There are the French, Spanish, Italian and German online versions which are bilingual always regarding English.
•Collins English Dictionary online also offers a free translation service. This service offers real-time translation in 552 language combinations.
• It also provides:
Virtual Keyboard – allows text input in more than 40 languages
Spell-checker – checks spelling in 8 languages
Dictionary – provides words search and translation in 20 language pairs
Transliteration – displays Russian text with Latin characters
Printing – prints original or translated text
Email – sends email in more than 40 languages
Interface localization – 11 languages

Sources: