Dictionary: Wordreference

WordReference is a free online dictionary used by thousands of people all around the world as it involves some of the most important languages in the world: English, Italian, Spanish, French and Portuguese. They are divided into the pairs English-French, English-Italian, English-Spanish, Spanish-Portuguese and English-Portuguese.

Although it might seem that these are not many languages, in fact French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese represent around 93% of the Romance language speakers in the world, which, as far as I am concerned, is quite a lot.

In 2009, more language pairs were added: English-German, English-Russian, English-Romanian, English-Polish, English-Czech, English-Greek, English-Turkish, English-Chinese, English-Japanese, English-Korean and English-Arabic, but they are still in progress of being finished.

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Denshi Jisho – Jisho.org

Denshi Jisho is an online dictionary whose main purpose is to serve learners of Japanese. With an English interface, it provides Japanese-to-English and English-to-Japanese translations (rather than extensive definitions) of words and expressions, as well as a powerful kanji lookup service.

The site is developed by Kim Ahlström and not backed by any organization. Most of the data used comes from Jim Breen’s WWWJDIC project. This includes approximately 110,000 up-to-date entries for general terms, about 12,000 on computing and communications, over 14,000 entries relating to engineering and science and more than 720,000 Japanese names, in addition to roughly 160,000 bilingual example sentences and information on kanji and their radicals. SKIP (System of Kanji Indexing by Patterns) numbers along with kanji frequency statistics are also borrowed from linguist Jack Halpern’s research.

VOCABULARY:

Denshi Jisho offers helpful characteristics which make it a recommendable tool for non-native Japanese students. Searching can be carried out in kana (hiragana & katakana), rômaji (transliteration into the Latin alphabet) or kanji. The dictionary looks for every expression (including collocations) containing the sequence of sounds we may input, and is even able to locate the base form of inflected words.

To help foreigners whose language competence is low, entries mark whether a word is of common usage and add notes between brackets whenever certain meanings are restricted to specific contexts or registers, belong to a dialect or are part of the slang or archaisms, etc.

KANJI:

The kanji lookup system is especially useful. While other dictionaries (particularly printed versions) require that you recognize a kanji fully in order to search for it, Denshi Jisho’s “kanji by radicals” feature offers a really fast and effective method to find characters even if you are not familiar with them not can discern them very clearly.

Here is an example of the steps to follow when we only have a blurry picture of the kanji we need to identify:


I have chosen two kanji compounds for the explanations.

I suggest two possible approaches to decipher them:

Method 1:
If a word that you cannot read is formed by more than one kanji and you are able to recognize at least one of them, you may use it as a basis for the rest of the search. In the case of the word in blue, the second kanji “体” is simple enough to recognize. First, we begin by searching that kanji. As we will see, individual kanji entries are very complete, with translations of their usual meanings into several languages and information on details such as the stroke order.



Because the position of this kanji is at the end of the compound, we should click on “words ending in”.

As expected, we are given a list with all of the words that end in “体”. It would take a long time to check those 534 results until we found the one we are looking for, so we will try to reduce the amount by checking “common words only”. Not all of the words we might want to locate need to be part of the list of common words, but it is likely that they will if the text is taken from an average source.

As we can see, the amount of results has decreased drastically and now we can reasonably look for our word among the results.


There it is.

Method 2:
The other method consists on looking for a kanji through its most visible radicals. Let’s try to find the second kanji on the word in yellow.

Although the left side of said kanji is a little more complex, we can clearly see the radical “攵” on the right. We should click on it after entering “kanji by radicals.”

A list of kanji which have the radical “攵” has appeared on the lower side of the window. The characters highlighted in a darker blue are those which are part of the jouyou list, which, at least in theory, includes the more regularly used kanji. Most kanji we may come across with should therefore appear among the highlighted ones.

In case we are given too many results and still do not locate our kanji, it would be a good idea to add another radical. On the upper side, the radicals which cannot combine with the one we chose have become unselectable, so it is now easier for us to find the radicals we are missing among the options that remain selectable. Although at first I could not decipher the left side of the kanji we are looking for, seeing the few choices I am left with it is easier to make a decision. I can now suppose that the lower left side of our kanji is the radical “女”.

Now that we are left with only six options, it is easy to recognize our kanji. As expected, it appears highlighted and is part of the jouyou list.

To find the complete word in yellow, we could either look for the other kanji through its radicals or follow the first method again.

As we can see, the process is not complicated and it is rendered extremely quick and simple when, as it should usually be the case, we have a clear picture of the kanji. Denshi Jisho’s radical lookup system is not only handy and convenient, but also a practical way for students to train their kanji memorizing skills as they unconsciously get used to those small units which form the composition of each character.

Slide presentation

References:
About – Denshi Jisho (2011). By Kim Ahlström. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
Types of Dictionaries (2011). In e-books of Central Institute of Indian Language – An Introduction to Lexicography. Retrieved February 19, 2011.

Second Review: Urban Dictionary

URBAN DICTIONARY

Some days ago, I was asked to do a translation from English to Spanish.The text I was given was The Race at Left Bower, by Ambrose Bierce. Since Bierce is an author that we have been studying recently in our American Literature course, I thought I wouldn’t find it particularly tough to translate it to Spanish. However, as I began to read the first paragraph, I totally changed my mind:

“It’s all very well fer (for) you Britishers to go assin’ (assing) about the country tryin’ to strike the trail o’ (of) the mines you’ve salted down yer (your) loose carpital (capital) in,” said Colonel Jackhigh, setting his empty glass on the counter and wiping his lips with his coat sleeve; “but w’en it comes to hoss (horse) racin’, w’y I’ve got a cayuse ken lay over all the thurrerbreds (thorough breds) yer little mantel-ornyment (ornament) of a island ever panned out—bet yer britches (bridges) I have! Talk about yer Durby (derby) winners—w’y this pisen little beast o’ mine’ll take the bit in her teeth and show ’em (them) the way to the horizon like she was takin’ her mornin’ stroll and they was tryin’ to keep an eye on her to see she didn’t do herself an injury—that’s w’at she would! And she haint (hasn’t) never run a race with anything spryer’n (sprayer than) an Injun in all her life; she’s a green amatoor, she is!”

Indeed, I found the text absolutely undecipherable at first sight and I did not know how to start, as I could not even fully understand the meaning of the first sentence. Nevertheless, by googling the words I didn’t know, I came across a very curious and useful online dictionary: the Urban Dictionary.

Example:

1. Hoss
buy hoss mugs, tshirts and magnets914 up, 253 down

one who is a beast that can basically do anything he wants. He is usually loved by all and a ladies man. He could break anyone or anything in half. Hoss is a compliment.

Man, that Stefan is a hoss. He could kill a freshman with one stare down.

beast awesome hosse huge monster
by J Hunter Jan 9, 2006 share this

2. Hoss
buy hoss mugs, tshirts and magnets 951 up, 320 down

August 3, 2006 Urban Word of the Day

A southern colloquial nickname for partner, a term of friendship.

You betta’ get that grass mowed, hoss.

by halide Apr 18, 2003 share this

3. Hoss
buy hoss mugs, tshirts and magnets 522 up, 218 down

Pretty much, a badass.

You’re such a hoss for doing that.

badass gangsta hardass nukkah g
by Amanda&Arlan May 24, 2006 share this

  • As we can appreciate, the first thing we see under the word we were looking for is already an ad, followed by the rating that users have given to the quality of the definition of the given word. Then, we are given the -not very elaborated- definition, followed by an example of a context where we could use that word. And finally, we can see the tagsauthor and date of the definition.
  • Sometimes, there are also images of the words we are looking for. Some of them are rather curious. For instance, if we look up the word “stupid”, the following image will appear under this title: “I’m stupid, I accidentally super glued my hand to the juicyfruit”.

Features of the dictionary:

  • Initiated in 1999, Urban Dictionary has currently about four million definitions and it continues increasing.
  • It is an open tool, free, and anyone can participate and include the terms he/she wants. This is clearly an advantage, because we can be almost 100% sure that it will be the actual language of the streets.
  • The web page also offers a chat to meet other users, as well as a blog dedicated to public opinion.
  • It also includes a popular encyclopedia with biographies of celebrities, among other things.

How does it work?

  • The main page has got different tabs to browse: word of the day, dictionary, store, text me, add, edit, chat and blog.
  • Its method is very simple. If we wish to have an overview over the page, we can find the full alphabet on the upper side of the page, which will help us look up the word we want. There is also an option to look up words in random.
  • If, on the contrary, we wish to find a certain word or term, we just have to type the word we are looking for and press the “search” button, and we will come up with all the existing definitions of the word.
  • Urban Dictionary is also available for IPhone.

Advantages:

  • It is a very useful tool to have fun and it serves as a complement to normal dictionaries if you come across a tricky expression like the above mentioned.
  • It offers information about colloquial expressions, idioms and even insults which do not appear in any common dictionary.
  • Quality is democratically regulated in two levels. Firstly, registered users vote in order to accept or reject recently presented definitions. Definitions appear in the dictionary after having received an acceptable voting rate. Secondly, any visitor can vote for the best definitions and, according to that, they appear in a descending order.

Disadvantages:

  • The site is full of advertisements which may be annoying at times.
  • As anyone can participate and write entries to the dictionary, sometimes we have doubts about whether the information will be trustworthy.

To conclude, it is well worth saying that, from all the resources available on the net, Urban Dictionary is one of the most ingenious dictionaries I have ever used. In fact, it’s no use learning a language in an academic way if we are not able to understand the jargons and slang language that native speakers are familiar with. In this sense, Urban Dictionary can be of great interest and utility.

Sources:

THESAURUS

According to wikipedia Thesaurus:  “Is a book that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which contains definitions and pronunciations”.

Thesaurus is based on “Term relationships” which are links between terms. These relationships can be divided into three types: hierarchical, equivalency or associative.

  • Hierarchical relationships are used to indicate terms which are narrower and broader in scope. A “Broader Term” is a more general term e.g. “Apparatus” is a generalization of “Computers”. Reciprocally, a “Narrower Term” is a more specific term e.g. “Digital Computer” is a specialization of “Computer”.
  • The equivalency relationship is used primarily to connect synonyms and near-synonyms.
  • Associative relationships are used to connect two related terms whose relationship is neither hierarchical nor equivalent. This relationship is described by the indicator “Related Term”. In a way, associative relationships should be applied with caution, since excessive use of RTs will reduce specificity in searches.

The Visual Thesaurus of the Cambridge Dictionary Online is an example of a Thesaurus. In the website, when you look up a word in a selected topic, you can see other entries in that topic on the right-hand side – a group of words that are related to the word you looked up. The words in the cloud are bigger or smaller depending on how frequently they are used. Here we have an example with the word alone.

With a slight click in that square, the website leads us to the Visual Thesaurus. Then, we type in a word (alone) and clicking once again we can find a big thesaurus in the middle of the page.

The yellow points indicate adjectives and the blue points adverbs. Then, we have red points which indicate nouns and the green ones which indicate verbs. The last two doesn’t appear in the example. Moreover, we are given the sound of the word searched, we can hear the pronunciation of words just with clicking the loudspeaker.

If you are interested in this ingenious tool here you have more information: The largest thesaurus in the world, the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary , which contains more than 920,000 words and meanings.

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE VISUAL THESAURUS OF CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARIES ONLINE AND OTHER THESAURUS  FOUND ON THE INTERNET

In this section of my review,  I would like to compare both The Visual Thesaurus of CDO and Lexipedia. Lexipedia is another page with thesaurus that is very similar to Visual Thesaurus. However, they have little differences among them.

At first sight as many other thesaurus they looked equal, both show nouns, adjectives, verbs… What’s more, they also show the definition and the sound of each word we have looked up. Apart from that, they have the chance of search a word in other languages which is useful for people who are learning more than one language. However, apart from equalities, we can also find little differences.

VISUAL THESAURUS: Example of a research

First, you just need to type in the word you are interested in and, then, click were it says “look it up”.

After that, you do not need to do anything else, the word just shows a number of words related to what you have searched.

LEXIPEDIA: Example of a research

As well as in the other thesaurus you have to type in the word you are interested in and, then, click were it says “sumit”.

Instantly, as well as in the other example, a thesaurus appears with a number of words related to what you have searched.

DIFFERENCES:

  • At first sight, we can appreciate that Lexipedia looks more elaborated and easier than CDO’s Visual Thesaurus as it has very well organised elements. In the case of CDO’s Visual Thesaurus, the page which appears in front of us when we look up a word is rather boring and simple as it has just the meanings of words on the right and the thesaurus in the centre.
  • Another difference between these thesaurus is that Lexipedia gives us the meaning of words such as noun, adjective, verb etc  and Visual Thesaurus don’t.

  • The last but also an important difference is that in Lexipedia, just putting the mouse in any word of the thesaurus a window appears with the sound and definition. In the case of CDO’s Visual Thesaurus you have to click on the word to make the sound appear. What’s more, Lexipedia offers the definitions of words on the left of the page and also in the window I mentioned before.

Sources:

Cambridge Dictionaries Online


As an English Philology student, so often I find difficult to understand the meaning of some words. I came across this language resource when one of the English teachers asked me to do a folder to include all unknown words at the beginning of the course. From all the available resources on the net, Cambridge Dictionary Online is one of the most ingenious dictionaries I have ever used.This tool is not only helpful in order to find many words that are not understood when reading, but it is also appropriate for translation tasks as it offers very accurate definitions and examples. Even if CDO is thought for non native English speakers, it may also be interesting for native speakers as it offers a full range of features.

Background about the creator (Cambridge University Press ELT):

  • Cambridge University Press ELT was established in the mid 1970s, and within thirty years has become one of the world’s leading publishers of ELT material. We now account for over a quarter of Cambridge Publishing’s sales revenue and over a half of all publications sold.
  • The quality of Cambridge’s ELT list is achieved by extremely close collaboration between in-house editors, all of whom have teaching experience and qualifications, and the teaching profession. Extensive market research precedes the development of new materials which are then piloted in schools in many parts of the world. We produce not only books but CDs, videos, CD-Roms and, increasingly, Web-based materials. ELT publications are sold to almost every country in the world and promoted by representatives based in 67 countries.
  • Cambridge ELT first earned its reputation as a publisher of materials for adults, but, in response to ever larger number of young children learning English, the list’s range is expanding. The oldest Press in the world now provides for even the youngest learners.

What can the Cambridge International Corpus do for students?

* Cambridge learner’s dictionaries, grammar and vocabulary learning materials, and examination, business and general English course books have all benefited from the information in the corpus.

* The corpus is constantly being added to so it’s always got current contemporary language in it and we can prioritise grammar and vocabulary that is most frequent and most useful.

* There is a huge range of types of material in the Cambridge International Corpus we can always find real examples that sound natural and realistic. So, the examples used, although they may sometimes be edited or adapted, are a reflection of real usage in real contexts; they are not invented.

* By using spoken corpora we can learn very important things about social communication. As a result, the activities in corpus-informed materials can focus on the most important features of speaking and listening skills and produce more effective communication.

About Cambridge Dictionaries Online:

– Cambridge University Press has been publishing dictionaries for learners of English since 1995.

– Cambridge Dictionaries Online has been offering many dictionaries completely free of charge since 1999.

Features:

– On the website there is The Cambridge SMART Thesaurus which organizes words and phrases into topics: When you look up a word in a selected topic, you can see other entries in that topic on the right-hand side – a group of words that are related to the word you looked up. The words in the cloud are bigger or smaller depending on how frequently they are used.

– You can keep in touch with the web’s favourite learner dictionaries through Twitter. Follow CambridgeWords and you’ll get regular Word of the Day updates, as well as being informed whenever they update the site.

– You can also choose to search their Learner’s, American English, Idiom, and Phrasal Verbs dictionaries online. Each entry includes the part of speech, definition, a short sentence or phrase, and phonetics.

– The Cambridge Dictionary Online includes The top 40 that is a list which shows the 40 entries that were clicked on most frequently in August 2009.

– You’ll find updated data with hundreds of words and examples from the latest edition of Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Their dictionary entries include thousands of example sentences chosen specifically by dictionary editors to illustrate the meanings.

How does it works:

– If we wish to find a certain word or term, we just have to type the word we are looking for and press the “search” button, and we will come up with all the existing definitions of the word.

Besides, I would like to give some examples of what the online dictionary can offer to all users, focusing mainly on its monolingual usage:

1. Noun: Book

2. Verb: Put

3. Adjective: Rich

4. Preposition: On

As it can be appreciated, if the dictionary finds that there are other words or expressions that also contain the word that is being looked up, it provides the possibility of choosing between one or another in order to make the research as accurate as possible.

COMPARISON BETWEEN CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARIES ONLINE AND COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY ONLINE

In this section of my review, I would like to compare the kind of explanations or definitions that Cambridge Dictionaries Online offers as opposed to the Collins English Dictionary:

Cambridge Dictionaries Online: Coward

Collins English Dictionary: Coward

CAMBRIDGE:

On the one hand, as it can be apreciated, the Cambridge Dictionaries Online offers a variety of things that are very useful in a dictionary:

•Sentences which help us to understand better the meaning of the word we have looked up.

•A voice that pronounce in British and American English in order to teach the user to pronounce correctly.

•The phonetics of the word we have chosen.

•A visual thesaurus which is also very helpful to see words connected with the word we have searched.

COLLINS:

On the other hand, the Collins English Dintionary does not have those caracteristics as it doesn’t give sentences nor pronunciation. Collins just shows the definition of the word we have looked up. However, it provides other things which are very useful:
•There are the French, Spanish, Italian and German online versions which are bilingual always regarding English.
•Collins English Dictionary online also offers a free translation service. This service offers real-time translation in 552 language combinations.
• It also provides:
Virtual Keyboard – allows text input in more than 40 languages
Spell-checker – checks spelling in 8 languages
Dictionary – provides words search and translation in 20 language pairs
Transliteration – displays Russian text with Latin characters
Printing – prints original or translated text
Email – sends email in more than 40 languages
Interface localization – 11 languages

Sources:

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English

The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English is a very useful monolingual dictionary available on the net. I came across this language resource when one of the English teachers recommended it at the beginning of the course. This tool is not only helpful in order to find many words that are not understood when reading, but it is also appropriate for translation tasks as it offers very accurate definitions and examples. Even if the LDOCE is thought for non native English speakers, it may also be interesting for native speakers as it offers a full range of features.

Background:

The website of the dictionary is owned and operated by Pearson Education which is part of the global media and education group Pearson and has different English language publishing programmes all over the world. Moreover, the LDOCE is powered by IDM (XML Content Management Software) a French company which provides software development services to electronic information users and suppliers.

The dictionary, as all Longman dictionaries, is compiled using the Longman Corpus Network which offers a huge database of 330 million words taken from a wide range of sources from the real life.

But, which is the main benefit of being based on this Corpus? In many cases, it is difficult to know which words are used together (collocations). In consequence of being based in such Corpus, the LDOCE offers a variety of word combinations which is very useful when having to write an essay or even read an article. Another advantage that the dictionary offers is the fact that as it takes into account many words from students’ essays or exams, it avoids common mistakes.

How to use the Longman Dictionary Online:

The online version of the Longman dictionary offers around 207000 words and their meaning, as well as 7000 references to either people, or places etc. On the following lines, I will introduce a short usage of the tool.

1. Looking up a word 

This version is very useful and easy to use. By typing the word in the search box and clicking OK we will be instantly directed to a page where all the definitions for the word are listed.

There may appear more than one option if the word is used as more than one part of speech. To make things easier, the word shown first is the most used.

2. How to hear the pronunciation of a certain word

It also offers the pronunciation of the word which is useful to understand the International Phonetic Alphabet’s symbols. In order to listen to the pronunciation, we just have to click on the speaker buttons which appear next to the example sentences to hear them. Moreover, by clicking on the speaker button at the top of the entry we will be directed to a new window. There we can hear the headword pronounced either in British English or American English, and also all the example sentences for that entry.

What happens if the word we want to check does not appear? The online dictionary offers a spellchecker which will suggest different options similar to the one typed.

3. Searching by topic

It is also important to point out that the online version has recently made available the possibility of looking up a word by clicking on topic label (what they have called “Topic Dictionary”). This is how the dictionary creates a kind of net between words which is really useful for the user in order to follow the connections between words very easily. Even if we are searching for a specific word, it can interest us to see similar words, or compounds, etc. This may be particularly useful when writing an essay as we might be using words related to the same topic as in the following example. We might be using words related to motor vehicles, or words connected with technology.

4. Pictures

Before that, the dictionary also added the chance to see pictures of words through its “Dictionary pictures”. It has been suggested in many cases that the best way to learn and remember the meaning of a word is by pictures. It is not only highly recommended for teaching kids, but also for adults. Our memory tends to remember more easily the image of a certain word rather than the whole explanation, that is why I found really interesting that the dictionary is adjuncting to the meaning the picture of the word.

Practical examples:

  • Nouns:

As it can be seen in this example of a noun search, the dictionary first of all specifies if the word is countable or uncountable between brackets and in agreen colour next to the word. As previously mentioned, the dictionary also offers in some cases the picture which will appear to the right. Some words have several different meanings which are organized by their usage. The most used or most common meaning appears first next to the number in red. In this example, the second meaning is accompanied by a similar word or a synonym which is shown between brackets and next to a symbol of equality in blue. Each meaning is followed by several examples where the word can be used, and each of those examples is preceded by a symbol which allows listening to the pronunciation. Moreover, at the end of each meaning, if possible, the dictionary suggests in strong blue next to a row different words which are related to the word we have searched.

  • Verbs:

In contrast to the example of the noun search, when searching a verb, the dictionary goes directly to the first meaning. This is when as with the noun, it offers the specification of whether it is a transitive or intransitive verb. This is shown after the number of the meaning (in red) between brackets and ingreen. In the case of verbs it also gives words that seem to be synonyms in blue and also between brackets. It can also be appreciated that there are some cases when the dictionary specifies when it is used in British English or in American English in purple italics. It also makes clear when it is a phrasal verbnext to the usage in light grey. Of course, the pronunciation of each example is available by clicking to the pronunciation icon which appears before it.

  • Adjectives:

With adjectives, the dictionary goes straight into the meanings also ordered depending their usage and after their corresponding number in red. In the previous two cases, the tool offered similar words or synonyms next to each meaning (if there are synonyms). However, in the case of adjectives, it shows the possible antonyms or words with the opposed meaning. They are specified between brackets in blue and after a crossed symbol of equality. It has to be pointed out that at the end of the entry, the dictionary offers words formed with the adjectives; in the example it shows that from polite we can formpolitely by adding the suffix -ly indicating an adverb, or we can also get the noun politeness by adding the suffix -ness. It also offers several examples with their corresponding pronunciations.

  • Adverbs:

This final example shows the search for an adverb. It does not show any other new feature that has not been mentioned in the previous examples. The meanings are ordered by the usages and all the examples offer the possibility of listening to them.

Comparing the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English with the Urban Dictionary:

First of all, it has to be pointed out that these two dictionaries are completely different as we will appreciate when we first get into their web page.

The appearance of each online dictionary is completely opposed. The LDOCE appears to be more clear, more organized, in other words, moresophisticated. Even if it has some advertisements they are very well put together with the content of the dictionary so that it does not disturb when using the tool; they are left aside on the right or left very well organized in columns and with a subtle frame marking the ad. Moreover, the page makes your view go straight into the searching box so that there is no possibility to get lost. The searching box appears in the upper part of the page in the middle and with a bigger size. The tool also offers a specific tab inside the page with specifications of the usage and very useful examples as well as common questions.

In contrast, the Urban Dictionary at a first sight is more like a chaos. It is full of advertisements in different formats (colours, size, etc.), and the first page does not show the dictionary itself, but a page with a list of the words of the day (which is also a bit confusing). In order to access the dictionary there are some tab at the top and we have to click in the tab “dictionary”. That way we will be directed to a page where for looking up a word we have to search in thealphabet or in a small searching box in the upper part to the right. This is not a very clear, organized and easy usage of a dictionary and it does not even offer a page with keys for using it nor any kind of explanation.

In reference to the content, the Urban Dictionary is very useful for slang or daily words that may not be found in the LDOCE. Let’s have a look at some examples:

  • Nouns:

As it can be appreciated, the Urban Dictionary first of all offers several words which are related to the word we are looking up. They appear one after the other in small blue boxes. Then it shows the list of meanings for the word ordered depending on the day they were published which appears at the end of each meaning after the name of the person who has published the entry. Each meaning is rated in favour or against by the users. Apart from the meaning it also offers some example sentences of how the word is used in context.

  • Verbs:

When searching a verb the same happens, first we are offered a list of words connected to the word we are looking for and then the list of meaningsordered all in the same way. However, in this case, it can be appreciated that the meaning given by the Urban Dictionary and the meaning that the LDOCE gives have nothing to do with each other. The one given by the Urban Dictionary refers to an Australian saying while the one given by the LDOCE is more connected to the generalized use of the verb shout. There is also an example sentence to help the user realize in which context is the word used.

Adjectives:

In the case of the adjective, the tool also includes the already cited list of related words in blue small boxes at the top and then the possible meanings for the word, each of them rated by the users. In this particular case, even if the meaning is referring to the same idea that the LDOCE is suggesting, it is slightly different. It can be noticed that the Urban Dictionary’s definition is not as accurate as the one given by the LDOCE which is more complete, more formal and it is better explained. Furthermore, the examples given are very simple and not very helpful.

Adverbs:

Finally, the search for the adverb shows the same features as in the previous cases. However, there is a tiny difference in this case, in contrast to the previous examples this entry shows a specification of what type of word it is (adverb). And instead of giving an example sentence it offers a conversation where the word is used.

*Resources: